In the case of the same installed capacity, why is the power generation different? This has something to do with the power generation efficiency of the power station. How to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic power generation, increase the output of photovoltaic power, and increase the income of the power station, this article has the following tips.
Choose the best installation angle and orientation
The geographical location of the PV plant is one of the most important factors. In the initial stage of the establishment of the power station, it is necessary to inspect the local weather conditions and sunshine conditions, and formulate a suitable construction plan according to local conditions, laying a good foundation for the subsequent years of power generation.
Choose the best inclination angle: Considering the seasonal changes, you can choose an appropriate installation angle so that the photovoltaic panels can receive sunlight radiation to the greatest extent throughout the year. Generally speaking, for fixed photovoltaic power plants, the installation angle is equal to the latitude angle of the area plus an adjustment angle. The adjustment angle can be determined empirically or through experiments to achieve the best power generation effect.
Choose the best orientation: The orientation of the photovoltaic panel refers to the angle of its plane relative to the south direction. In our country, photovoltaic panels are usually facing the south direction, because the sun shines most in the south direction. As long as it is within ±20° from the south, it will not have a great impact on the power generation. If conditions permit, it should be within 20° to the southwest as much as possible, so that the peak value of solar power generation will appear at a certain time after noon, so that It is beneficial to generate more electricity in winter. In the southern hemisphere, choose to face due north.
Reduce shadow blocking: ensure that the photovoltaic panels are not blocked by shadows such as buildings and trees, so as not to affect power generation efficiency. Avoid areas where light shadows may occur. According to the circuit principle, when the components are connected in series, the current is determined by the least one, so if there is a shadow in one of the components, it will affect the power generation of the components in this way.
Create good ventilation conditions: When installing photovoltaic modules, leave enough space and brackets so that air can flow through the bottom and sides of the modules. The height and spacing of the brackets should be reasonably designed according to the local climate conditions and the type of photovoltaic modules. Proper PV module layout can facilitate ventilation. Avoid excessive overlap between components, and ensure that there is enough clearance between components to allow air to flow smoothly. 5. Regular cleaning: If the components are exposed to the air for a long time, there will naturally be organic matter, a large amount of dust, and snow accumulation. Dust or snow on the surface will block the light, reduce the output efficiency of the module, and directly affect the power generation. At the same time, it may also cause the "hot spot" effect of the components, resulting in damage to the components. Therefore, it is necessary to clean the components regularly to ensure that they are kept in normal working condition.
2.Choose an Efficient and Reliable Inverter
In addition to selecting an inverter that matches the power of the components according to the actual situation, choosing a reliable and high-quality inverter can also help improve the stability and life of the power station system. Inverters with reliable functions and real-time monitoring capabilities to check the performance of the system at any time and quickly find faults. The output power of the photovoltaic module is related to the working voltage of the MPPT controller. Only when it works at the most suitable voltage can its output power have a unique maximum value. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technology enables optimum power output from PV modules, so when choosing an inverter make sure it has efficient MPPT technology.
MPPT efficiency is a key factor in determining the power generation of a photovoltaic inverter, and its importance far exceeds the efficiency of the photovoltaic inverter itself. MPPT efficiency equals hardware efficiency multiplied by software efficiency. The hardware efficiency is mainly determined by the accuracy of the current sensor and the sampling circuit; the software efficiency is determined by the sampling frequency. There are many ways to implement MPPT, but no matter which method is used, it is necessary to first measure the power change of the component and then respond to the change. The key component is the current sensor, its accuracy and linearity error will directly determine the hardware efficiency, and the sampling accuracy of the software is also determined by the accuracy of the hardware.
3.Pay attention to the environment where the inverter is installed
Avoid direct sunlight: Avoid installing the inverter in a place exposed to direct sunlight. Choose to install it under the eaves on the backside or under the solar modules to reduce the impact of sunlight. If it is in an outdoor unsheltered area, it is recommended to install an awning.
Ensure ventilation space: Ensure that there is enough space around the inverter, and it needs to be installed in a space with air circulation, so as to ensure that the inverter can obtain sufficient air flow and help to dissipate heat. Ensure that the inverter works at a suitable temperature, otherwise the service life of the equipment and the overall power generation capacity of the power station will be affected in a high temperature state. 3. Pay attention to cleaning and maintenance: regularly clean the inverter and the space around it, and ensure that the ventilation channels are unblocked to maintain its efficient operation.
4.Reduce line loss
In a photovoltaic system, cables are indispensable. Although they only account for a small part, the impact of cables on power generation cannot be ignored. In the selection and laying of cables in the system, it is necessary to fully consider: the insulation performance of the cable, the heat-resistant and flame-resistant performance of the cable, the moisture-proof and light-proof performance of the cable, the type of cable core, and the size and specification of the cable. In daily operation and maintenance, we have to check whether the lines are damaged, whether there is leakage, etc., especially after each typhoon and hail, it is essential to check whether the lines and connectors are loose.
Regularly check the cables to avoid problems such as fatigue and aging of cables or terminals, which may cause excessive local heat, which may cause fires and cause power outages in power stations.